United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Market Report 2017

2017-05-02 / 3800.00 / Energy / 118 Pages / Qy Research Groups

Description

In this report, the United States Lead Acid UPS Battery market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022.

Geographically, this report splits the United States market into seven regions:
The West
Southwest
The Middle Atlantic
New England
The South
The Midwest
with sales (volume), revenue (value), market share and growth rate of Lead Acid UPS Battery in these regions, from 2012 to 2022 (forecast).

United States Lead Acid UPS Battery market competition by top manufacturers/players, with Lead Acid UPS Battery sales volume, price, revenue (Million USD) and market share for each manufacturer/player; the top players including
EnerSys
Exide Technologies
GS Yuasa
East Penn Manufacturing
Johnson Controls
Fiamm
Sebang Global Battery
CSB Battery
Hoppecke
NorthStar
Panasonic Battery
C&D Technologies
ACDelco
Trojan Battery
Amara Raja
Haze Batteries
Midac Power
Mutlu Batteries
BAE Batterien
Banner Batterien
Coslight Technology
Leoch Battery
Shoto Group
Chaowei Power
Narada Power Source
Vision
Sacred Sun Power Source
First National Battery
Guangyu International
Camel

On the basis of product, this report displays the sales volume, revenue, product price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into
Offline/Standby UPS
Line-Interactive UPS
Online/Double-Conversion UPS
On the basis on the end users/applications, this report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, sales volume, market share and growth rate of Lead Acid UPS Battery for each application, including
Data Center
Medical
Industry
Retail
Service
Other

If you have any special requirements, please let us know and we will offer you the report as you want.

Table of Content

Table of Contents

United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Market Report 2017
1 Lead Acid UPS Battery Overview
1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Lead Acid UPS Battery
1.2 Classification of Lead Acid UPS Battery by Product Category
1.2.1 United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Market Size (Sales Volume) Comparison by Type (2012-2022)
1.2.2 United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Market Size (Sales Volume) Market Share by Type (Product Category) in 2016
1.2.3 Offline/Standby UPS
1.2.4 Line-Interactive UPS
1.2.5 Online/Double-Conversion UPS
1.3 United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Market by Application/End Users
1.3.1 United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Market Size (Consumption) and Market Share Comparison by Application (2012-2022)
1.3.2 Data Center
1.3.3 Medical
1.3.4 Industry
1.3.5 Retail
1.3.6 Service
1.3.7 Other
1.4 United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Market by Region
1.4.1 United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Market Size (Value) Comparison by Region (2012-2022)
1.4.2 The West Lead Acid UPS Battery Status and Prospect (2012-2022)
1.4.3 Southwest Lead Acid UPS Battery Status and Prospect (2012-2022)
1.4.4 The Middle Atlantic Lead Acid UPS Battery Status and Prospect (2012-2022)
1.4.5 New England Lead Acid UPS Battery Status and Prospect (2012-2022)
1.4.6 The South Lead Acid UPS Battery Status and Prospect (2012-2022)
1.4.7 The Midwest Lead Acid UPS Battery Status and Prospect (2012-2022)
1.5 United States Market Size (Value and Volume) of Lead Acid UPS Battery (2012-2022)
1.5.1 United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales and Growth Rate (2012-2022)
1.5.2 United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Revenue and Growth Rate (2012-2022)

2 United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Market Competition by Players/Suppliers
2.1 United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales and Market Share of Key Players/Suppliers (2012-2017)
2.2 United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Revenue and Share by Players/Suppliers (2012-2017)
2.3 United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Average Price by Players/Suppliers (2012-2017)
2.4 United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Market Competitive Situation and Trends
2.4.1 United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Market Concentration Rate
2.4.2 United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Market Share of Top 3 and Top 5 Players/Suppliers
2.4.3 Mergers & Acquisitions, Expansion in United States Market
2.5 United States Players/Suppliers Lead Acid UPS Battery Manufacturing Base Distribution, Sales Area, Product Type

3 United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales (Volume) and Revenue (Value) by Region (2012-2017)
3.1 United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales and Market Share by Region (2012-2017)
3.2 United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Revenue and Market Share by Region (2012-2017)
3.3 United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Price by Region (2012-2017)

4 United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales (Volume) and Revenue (Value) by Type (Product Category) (2012-2017)
4.1 United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales and Market Share by Type (Product Category) (2012-2017)
4.2 United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Revenue and Market Share by Type (2012-2017)
4.3 United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Price by Type (2012-2017)
4.4 United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Growth Rate by Type (2012-2017)

5 United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales (Volume) by Application (2012-2017)
5.1 United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales and Market Share by Application (2012-2017)
5.2 United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Growth Rate by Application (2012-2017)
5.3 Market Drivers and Opportunities

6 United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Players/Suppliers Profiles and Sales Data
6.1 EnerSys
6.1.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors
6.1.2 Lead Acid UPS Battery Product Category, Application and Specification
6.1.2.1 Product A
6.1.2.2 Product B
6.1.3 EnerSys Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
6.1.4 Main Business/Business Overview
6.2 Exide Technologies
6.2.2 Lead Acid UPS Battery Product Category, Application and Specification
6.2.2.1 Product A
6.2.2.2 Product B
6.2.3 Exide Technologies Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
6.2.4 Main Business/Business Overview
6.3 GS Yuasa
6.3.2 Lead Acid UPS Battery Product Category, Application and Specification
6.3.2.1 Product A
6.3.2.2 Product B
6.3.3 GS Yuasa Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
6.3.4 Main Business/Business Overview
6.4 East Penn Manufacturing
6.4.2 Lead Acid UPS Battery Product Category, Application and Specification
6.4.2.1 Product A
6.4.2.2 Product B
6.4.3 East Penn Manufacturing Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
6.4.4 Main Business/Business Overview
6.5 Johnson Controls
6.5.2 Lead Acid UPS Battery Product Category, Application and Specification
6.5.2.1 Product A
6.5.2.2 Product B
6.5.3 Johnson Controls Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
6.5.4 Main Business/Business Overview
6.6 Fiamm
6.6.2 Lead Acid UPS Battery Product Category, Application and Specification
6.6.2.1 Product A
6.6.2.2 Product B
6.6.3 Fiamm Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
6.6.4 Main Business/Business Overview
6.7 Sebang Global Battery
6.7.2 Lead Acid UPS Battery Product Category, Application and Specification
6.7.2.1 Product A
6.7.2.2 Product B
6.7.3 Sebang Global Battery Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
6.7.4 Main Business/Business Overview
6.8 CSB Battery
6.8.2 Lead Acid UPS Battery Product Category, Application and Specification
6.8.2.1 Product A
6.8.2.2 Product B
6.8.3 CSB Battery Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
6.8.4 Main Business/Business Overview
6.9 Hoppecke
6.9.2 Lead Acid UPS Battery Product Category, Application and Specification
6.9.2.1 Product A
6.9.2.2 Product B
6.9.3 Hoppecke Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
6.9.4 Main Business/Business Overview
6.10 NorthStar
6.10.2 Lead Acid UPS Battery Product Category, Application and Specification
6.10.2.1 Product A
6.10.2.2 Product B
6.10.3 NorthStar Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
6.10.4 Main Business/Business Overview
6.11 Panasonic Battery
6.12 C&D Technologies
6.13 ACDelco
6.14 Trojan Battery
6.15 Amara Raja
6.16 Haze Batteries
6.17 Midac Power
6.18 Mutlu Batteries
6.19 BAE Batterien
6.20 Banner Batterien
6.21 Coslight Technology
6.22 Leoch Battery
6.23 Shoto Group
6.24 Chaowei Power
6.25 Narada Power Source
6.26 Vision
6.27 Sacred Sun Power Source
6.28 First National Battery
6.29 Guangyu International
6.30 Camel

7 Lead Acid UPS Battery Manufacturing Cost Analysis
7.1 Lead Acid UPS Battery Key Raw Materials Analysis
7.1.1 Key Raw Materials
7.1.2 Price Trend of Key Raw Materials
7.1.3 Key Suppliers of Raw Materials
7.1.4 Market Concentration Rate of Raw Materials
7.2 Proportion of Manufacturing Cost Structure
7.2.1 Raw Materials
7.2.2 Labor Cost
7.2.3 Manufacturing Expenses
7.3 Manufacturing Process Analysis of Lead Acid UPS Battery

8 Industrial Chain, Sourcing Strategy and Downstream Buyers
8.1 Lead Acid UPS Battery Industrial Chain Analysis
8.2 Upstream Raw Materials Sourcing
8.3 Raw Materials Sources of Lead Acid UPS Battery Major Manufacturers in 2016
8.4 Downstream Buyers

9 Marketing Strategy Analysis, Distributors/Traders
9.1 Marketing Channel
9.1.1 Direct Marketing
9.1.2 Indirect Marketing
9.1.3 Marketing Channel Development Trend
9.2 Market Positioning
9.2.1 Pricing Strategy
9.2.2 Brand Strategy
9.2.3 Target Client
9.3 Distributors/Traders List

10 Market Effect Factors Analysis
10.1 Technology Progress/Risk
10.1.1 Substitutes Threat
10.1.2 Technology Progress in Related Industry
10.2 Consumer Needs/Customer Preference Change
10.3 Economic/Political Environmental Change

11 United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Market Size (Value and Volume) Forecast (2017-2022)
11.1 United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Volume, Revenue Forecast (2017-2022)
11.2 United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Volume Forecast by Type (2017-2022)
11.3 United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Volume Forecast by Application (2017-2022)
11.4 United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Volume Forecast by Region (2017-2022)

12 Research Findings and Conclusion

13 Appendix
13.1 Methodology/Research Approach
13.1.1 Research Programs/Design
13.1.2 Market Size Estimation
13.1.3 Market Breakdown and Data Triangulation
13.2 Data Source
13.2.1 Secondary Sources
13.2.2 Primary Sources
13.3 Disclaimer



Table of Figures

List of Tables and Figures

Figure Product Picture of Lead Acid UPS Battery
Figure United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Market Size (MW) by Type (2012-2022)
Figure United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Volume Market Share by Type (Product Category) in 2016
Figure Offline/Standby UPS Product Picture
Figure Line-Interactive UPS Product Picture
Figure Online/Double-Conversion UPS Product Picture
Figure United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Market Size (MW) by Application (2012-2022)
Figure United States Sales Market Share of Lead Acid UPS Battery by Application in 2016
Figure Data Center Examples
Figure Medical Examples
Figure Industry Examples
Figure Retail Examples
Figure Service Examples
Figure Other Examples
Figure United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Market Size (Million USD) by Region (2012-2022)
Figure The West Lead Acid UPS Battery Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (2012-2022)
Figure Southwest Lead Acid UPS Battery Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (2012-2022)
Figure The Middle Atlantic Lead Acid UPS Battery Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (2012-2022)
Figure New England Lead Acid UPS Battery Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (2012-2022)
Figure The South of US Lead Acid UPS Battery Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (2012-2022)
Figure The Midwest Lead Acid UPS Battery Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (2012-2022)
Figure United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales (MW) and Growth Rate (2012-2022)
Figure United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (2012-2022)
Figure United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Market Major Players Product Sales Volume (MW) (2012-2017)
Table United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales (MW) of Key Players/Suppliers (2012-2017)
Table United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Share by Players/Suppliers (2012-2017)
Figure 2016 United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Share by Players/Suppliers
Figure 2017 United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Share by Players/Suppliers
Figure United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Market Major Players Product Revenue (Million USD) (2012-2017)
Table United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Revenue (Million USD) by Players/Suppliers (2012-2017)
Table United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Revenue Share by Players/Suppliers (2012-2017)
Figure 2016 United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Revenue Share by Players/Suppliers
Figure 2017 United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Revenue Share by Players/Suppliers
Table United States Market Lead Acid UPS Battery Average Price (USD/KW) of Key Players/Suppliers (2012-2017)
Figure United States Market Lead Acid UPS Battery Average Price (USD/KW) of Key Players/Suppliers in 2016
Figure United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Market Share of Top 3 Players/Suppliers
Figure United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Market Share of Top 5 Players/Suppliers
Table United States Players/Suppliers Lead Acid UPS Battery Manufacturing Base Distribution and Sales Area
Table United States Players/Suppliers Lead Acid UPS Battery Product Category
Table United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales (MW) by Region (2012-2017)
Table United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Share by Region (2012-2017)
Figure United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Share by Region (2012-2017)
Figure United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Market Share by Region in 2016
Table United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Revenue (Million USD) and Market Share by Region (2012-2017)
Table United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Revenue Share by Region (2012-2017)
Figure United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Revenue Market Share by Region (2012-2017)
Figure United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Revenue Market Share by Region in 2016
Table United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Price (USD/KW) by Region (2012-2017)
Table United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales (MW) by Type (2012-2017)
Table United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Share by Type (2012-2017)
Figure United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Share by Type (2012-2017)
Figure United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Market Share by Type in 2016
Table United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Revenue (Million USD) and Market Share by Type (2012-2017)
Table United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Revenue Share by Type (2012-2017)
Figure Revenue Market Share of Lead Acid UPS Battery by Type (2012-2017)
Figure Revenue Market Share of Lead Acid UPS Battery by Type in 2016
Table United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Price (USD/KW) by Types (2012-2017)
Figure United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Growth Rate by Type (2012-2017)
Table United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales (MW) by Application (2012-2017)
Table United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Market Share by Application (2012-2017)
Figure United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Market Share by Application (2012-2017)
Figure United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Market Share by Application in 2016
Table United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Growth Rate by Application (2012-2017)
Figure United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Growth Rate by Application (2012-2017)
Table EnerSys Basic Information List
Table EnerSys Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales (MW), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/KW) and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
Figure EnerSys Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Growth Rate (2012-2017)
Figure EnerSys Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Market Share in United States (2012-2017)
Figure EnerSys Lead Acid UPS Battery Revenue Market Share in United States (2012-2017)
Table Exide Technologies Basic Information List
Table Exide Technologies Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales (MW), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/KW) and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
Figure Exide Technologies Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Growth Rate (2012-2017)
Figure Exide Technologies Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Market Share in United States (2012-2017)
Figure Exide Technologies Lead Acid UPS Battery Revenue Market Share in United States (2012-2017)
Table GS Yuasa Basic Information List
Table GS Yuasa Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales (MW), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/KW) and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
Figure GS Yuasa Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Growth Rate (2012-2017)
Figure GS Yuasa Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Market Share in United States (2012-2017)
Figure GS Yuasa Lead Acid UPS Battery Revenue Market Share in United States (2012-2017)
Table East Penn Manufacturing Basic Information List
Table East Penn Manufacturing Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales (MW), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/KW) and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
Figure East Penn Manufacturing Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Growth Rate (2012-2017)
Figure East Penn Manufacturing Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Market Share in United States (2012-2017)
Figure East Penn Manufacturing Lead Acid UPS Battery Revenue Market Share in United States (2012-2017)
Table Johnson Controls Basic Information List
Table Johnson Controls Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales (MW), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/KW) and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
Figure Johnson Controls Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Growth Rate (2012-2017)
Figure Johnson Controls Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Market Share in United States (2012-2017)
Figure Johnson Controls Lead Acid UPS Battery Revenue Market Share in United States (2012-2017)
Table Fiamm Basic Information List
Table Fiamm Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales (MW), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/KW) and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
Figure Fiamm Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Growth Rate (2012-2017)
Figure Fiamm Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Market Share in United States (2012-2017)
Figure Fiamm Lead Acid UPS Battery Revenue Market Share in United States (2012-2017)
Table Sebang Global Battery Basic Information List
Table Sebang Global Battery Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales (MW), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/KW) and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
Figure Sebang Global Battery Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Growth Rate (2012-2017)
Figure Sebang Global Battery Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Market Share in United States (2012-2017)
Figure Sebang Global Battery Lead Acid UPS Battery Revenue Market Share in United States (2012-2017)
Table CSB Battery Basic Information List
Table CSB Battery Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales (MW), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/KW) and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
Figure CSB Battery Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Growth Rate (2012-2017)
Figure CSB Battery Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Market Share in United States (2012-2017)
Figure CSB Battery Lead Acid UPS Battery Revenue Market Share in United States (2012-2017)
Table Hoppecke Basic Information List
Table Hoppecke Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales (MW), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/KW) and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
Figure Hoppecke Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Growth Rate (2012-2017)
Figure Hoppecke Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Market Share in United States (2012-2017)
Figure Hoppecke Lead Acid UPS Battery Revenue Market Share in United States (2012-2017)
Table NorthStar Basic Information List
Table NorthStar Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales (MW), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/KW) and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
Figure NorthStar Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Growth Rate (2012-2017)
Figure NorthStar Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Market Share in United States (2012-2017)
Figure NorthStar Lead Acid UPS Battery Revenue Market Share in United States (2012-2017)
Table Panasonic Battery Basic Information List
Table C&D Technologies Basic Information List
Table ACDelco Basic Information List
Table Trojan Battery Basic Information List
Table Amara Raja Basic Information List
Table Haze Batteries Basic Information List
Table Midac Power Basic Information List
Table Mutlu Batteries Basic Information List
Table BAE Batterien Basic Information List
Table Banner Batterien Basic Information List
Table Coslight Technology Basic Information List
Table Leoch Battery Basic Information List
Table Shoto Group Basic Information List
Table Chaowei Power Basic Information List
Table Narada Power Source Basic Information List
Table Vision Basic Information List
Table Sacred Sun Power Source Basic Information List
Table First National Battery Basic Information List
Table Guangyu International Basic Information List
Table Camel Basic Information List
Table Production Base and Market Concentration Rate of Raw Material
Figure Price Trend of Key Raw Materials
Table Key Suppliers of Raw Materials
Figure Manufacturing Cost Structure of Lead Acid UPS Battery
Figure Manufacturing Process Analysis of Lead Acid UPS Battery
Figure Lead Acid UPS Battery Industrial Chain Analysis
Table Raw Materials Sources of Lead Acid UPS Battery Major Players/Suppliers in 2016
Table Major Buyers of Lead Acid UPS Battery
Table Distributors/Traders List
Figure United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Volume (MW) and Growth Rate Forecast (2017-2022)
Figure United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate Forecast (2017-2022)
Figure United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Price (USD/KW) Trend Forecast (2017-2022)
Table United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Volume (MW) Forecast by Type (2017-2022)
Figure United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Volume (MW) Forecast by Type (2017-2022)
Figure United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Volume (MW) Forecast by Type in 2022
Table United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Volume (MW) Forecast by Application (2017-2022)
Figure United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Volume (MW) Forecast by Application (2017-2022)
Figure United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Volume (MW) Forecast by Application in 2022
Table United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Volume (MW) Forecast by Region (2017-2022)
Table United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Volume Share Forecast by Region (2017-2022)
Figure United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Volume Share Forecast by Region (2017-2022)
Figure United States Lead Acid UPS Battery Sales Volume Share Forecast by Region in 2022
Table Research Programs/Design for This Report
Figure Bottom-up and Top-down Approaches for This Report
Figure Data Triangulation
Table Key Data Information from Secondary Sources
Table Key Data Information from Primary Sources

Request Sample

captcha
Can't read the image? click here to refresh
* mark fields are compulsory